Tuesday, December 29, 2020

More nicknames and disparaging terms for Italians: Those G-words

As a follow-up to my post on the origin of the terms “wop” and “dago” to label Italian Americans in a negative way, I’d like to cover a few other words used in a comparable way.

Tony and his Youtube
guide to life as a guido.
Guido is similar to dago in its origins. Guido was a much-used first name in Italy during the early 1900s. I am related to four Guido Spadonis from the small town of Ponte Buggianese who immigrated to the United States between 1900 and 1920. Since there was no corresponding name in the English language, people named Guido tended to stand out as Italians, as no other ethnic group used this name.

This practice was applied to other groups as well. People from Ireland were called “paddies” because of the frequency of the name Patrick. British sailors were nicknamed “jacks” for the same reason. Fritz, the nickname for Friedrich, also came to be used in a somewhat derogatory manner when referring to Germans. However, many Italians embrace the term guido and freely use it to describe their ethnic identity.

I caught this band at the Festa
Italiana in Seattle one year.
Another term, “goombah” or “goomba,” is also considered a term of endearment used by Italian Americans to refer to their compatriots, and that is fairly close to its original meaning. “Cumpare,” “cumpà,” and “compare” are all Italian dialect words that derive from compater (cousin) or compatriota (countryman). Italian Americans developed their own dialect words, and “goomba” is one of them—a mispronunciation of cumpà. However, just like any other word, it can be considered offensive when used in a disparaging context.

Perhaps the term Italian Americans consider the most offensive is “guinea,” which is a crude way to tag Italians with the notorious n-word. From the 1600s and onwards, Guinea was used as a geographical term for the coast of West Africa. The online etymology dictionary Etymonline.com states that guinea is used as “a derogatory term for an Italian (1896)” that derives “from Guinea Negro (1740s) ‘black person, person of mixed ancestry,’ (and) applied to Italians probably because of their dark complexions relative to northern Europeans.”

Because of its association with one of today’s most distasteful racial epithets, and the fact that it doesn’t share any roots in the Italian language, guinea is one of the few terms for Italian Americans that I find truly inappropriate and insulting.

These terms are all unique to North American culture. However, Italians in Italy have their own disparaging nicknames for their fellow countrymen, representing dislike and prejudice between northerners and southerners. Southerners call those from the north Polentoni (polenta eaters), while people in the south are called Terroni (literally farmers or peasants—but somewhat like the American terms redneck or bumpkin). Similar to many nicknames and/or epithets, it is usually not offensive to be called a polentone or terrone by one’s friends from the same region—but the terms can be fighting words when used by outsiders or enemies. Context is the key, as it is for so many of these slang labels.


Where do "wop" and "dago" come from? Click here to find out.


  1. In the navy in the Sixties and visiting the port of Naples, I'd only just got off the boat and heard one of the Italian vendors call out to me, "'Ey, skinny guinea." I had to smile because he'd obviously pegged me as a fellow Italian even though my mom was German. But yes, I look very much like my Italian dad. Anyway, considering the subject, I thought it both amusing and apropos to mention it.

  2. My Uncle Costanzo ( my godfather ) would call me "goomba" all the time. He came from Capri when he was 16 and had me drinking espresso when I was about 7>

  3. Not of the origin if it was from my uncle, my mom's brother-in-law, and his family or just a name he picked up somewhere. He would call me Pasquali. I only remember it as a result of reading of your article. To me, it was a term of endearment, since my uncle did not use it with my older brother. Then, again, it was probably easier to remember to say Pasquali than is was to remember my name. I will never know when he picked up the name Pasquali, because Uncle Bill passed away about 20 years ago. He took me fishing as often as he could since he and my aunt had no children.

  4. Sono nato a Fitzroy (Melbourne) da genitori Australiani in 1930 e ho vissuto tra italiani. Non ho mai sentito l'espressione Wop per descrivere un'italiano. Però ho sentito durante il mio soggiorno a Milano per lavoro che la gente settentrionali usava la parola terrone per descrivere gli italiani del sud. Questa è un'usanza mondiale per mostrare la superiorità della gente da un luogo contro gli intrusi da un'altro.
    Vorrei raccontare la storia del fruttivendolo di mia mamma ha usato la parola dago come uno scherzo su se stesso quando ha pubblicizzato la sua attività con le parole "Buy your fruit here as the Dagos buy" (Compra la tua frutta qui come compranno i Dagos). Questo detto in inglese ha un doppio senso in quanto vuole dire anche "Buy your fruit here as the day goes by", cioè "mentre passa la giornata". Cordiali saluti. William Steele

  5. As a child growing up in Central New York State where my family roots go back to the 1880s, I remember hearing these words among my peers and adults but usually in terms of endearment. Sometimes heard as a derogatory terms as well.

    But what I recall most of all, was that my genuine Italian relatives from the old country (old aunts and uncles and one of my grand parents) who often would look upon us (2nd and 3rd generation "Italian"- Americans) when they wanted to insult us for doing something wrong or silly in their eyes, they would refer to us as "stupid Americans". Of all the terms levied against me or someone of the same background, I found that one and only term offensive to me. I was a third generation American in the 1960s and this is my country of origin - the United States - and their febble attempt to try and denigrate that was over the line I always thought.

  6. No matter their origin, the words have been used to insult and debase Italians. Part of our problem is that we allow non-Italians to continue to use them and we even use them among ourselves. Their are derogatory words, for example, for Blacks and Jews. God forbid, rightly, that those names should be used because, as it should be, there would be protests. We, as Italians, need to do the same and have more pride and self-respect.

  7. You realize Ellis island had a”WOP” rubber stamp

    1. And yet, to this day, no one has ever produced a sample of any document stamped with it. And that's because it didn't exist.


Comments welcome.